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Michael Koot

ANTR350: Human Gross Anatomy & Structural Biology
Best Blended
“Virtual dissections allow exploration, learning, and assessment”
- Michael Koot -

A purposeful mix of recorded and live lectures plus customized integration of McGraw Hill’s Anatomy and Physiology Revealed virtual dissection tools for lectures, virtual labs, and student assessment result in effective learning in this large enrollment course.

The use of recorded lectures allows students to be first introduced to the fundamental anatomy of a given organ system or body region. This allows the instructor to then use class time to clarify, emphasize, and review the more complex anatomy of the specific organ system. Live lecture time is also used to informally gauge student knowledge by using clicker questions which reward participation. Based on the results of these quizzes, the instructor can then revisit a certain concept that requires reinforcement. In face-to-face lectures, the instructor can also focus on relevant clinical case correlates that apply to the anatomy of a specific organ system or body region.

Approximately 25% of the course content is available through recorded lectures that substitute for in-class lectures. Some of the topics covered by recorded lectures are then followed up with a face-to- face lecture session that first reviews the major concepts first presented in the recorded lecture. Clinical case correlates in which abnormal or pathological anatomy is involved with a medical condition or disease provide students with concrete examples of why the knowledge of normal anatomy in important. In order to identify abnormal anatomy, students first need to know normal anatomy. The clinical case correlates associated with the anatomy of a certain body region are then presented to the class by the instructor.

Student engagement and participation is often attempted through the use of clickers. There are many different modes of practice self-assessment that students can utilize, most of which are enhanced by technology. Student performance is assessed by five in-class unit exams, and ten “quizzes”, three of which are submitted on Desire2Learn as essentially open book homework assignments. The remaining seven are “virtual lab quizzes” that require the student to identify anatomical structures on images from a virtual cadaver website in a lab practical format.

In anatomy there are several instances in which a recorded lecture of high quality can be a more successful method for presenting students with new information than the traditional face-to-face lecture. A specific example from this course is the anatomy of the skull. The skull is a three-dimensional structure, thus when it is converted into two-dimensional images the result is numerous possible views. Teaching this lecture face- to-face in a large lecture hall can be difficult, as the instructor is required to constantly flip from one slide to the next to properly locate a specific bone or bony process.

One of the highlights of this course is the integration of the Anatomy and Physiology Revealed (APR) 3.0 website. This website allows for an interactive dissection on a virtual cadaver. The use of this website by students is important for learning the anatomical and spatial relationships of different structures since this course does not have a lab component. Instead, their lab experience in ANTR 350 is virtual.

When students register to use APR they enter a customized code provided by the instructor that correlates to a list of specific ANTR 350 course objectives which they are responsible for knowing. This custom list was selected from the thousands of possible APR objectives and becomes the default view for any of the APR modules. This customization is an incredible asset, and it makes the question of “what structures in APR do I need to know” easy to answer. A student is responsible for knowing everything on the customized list. At any time if their curiosity needs to be satisfied, they can simply make one click and view all the objectives in the complete version of the APR website.


Lindsey L. Jenny, PhD, Department of Radiology, Instructor

Maureen Schaefer, PhD, Department of Radiology, Instructor